The Kis-Balaton is a gigantic sump world,
a part of the national park in the Oberbalaton. It is main for its single good
bird world famous. One may entered the blocked zone only with Erlubnis and
accompaniment according to prior time voting.
The island K nyav r is a nature protectorate in that little-Balaton, more long than a 1km, also freely on a visit. The nature friends are expected here with walls vehicle, outlook towers, and hinge possibilities.
The structural work of the second phase became began
1984. In the first years, the necessary financial means were not secured,
shifted themselves the Abfertigungs-appointment. With the insertion of the
passing overflowed zone of the Kleinbalatons, the nährstoffzuriick
increased-holding effect degree of the system. The facts mentioned above make
the acceleration, and/or the Beendung of the structural work of this investment
compel. That is necessarily on the one hand in the interest of the improvement
of the water quality the Balatons, and on the other hand it is desired also by
the page of the company.
The Kis-Balaton was formed once organic part of the Balaton, and with together an only lake. Römeische ships landed in the 4th century in the vicinity of Fenekpuszta. Pribina, a slavic sovereign, reached the castle Zalavär on the Wasserweg (9. Jh.) In Balatonhidveg yet in the ver gan-gene century, steam ships fastened. The year 1818 marks the start of a basic transformation: the Ormander and Simonyer Hain on the page Somogy became drains. The Trockenlegung of the Zala-valley, 1,863 began constructed 1835 one the Siöfoker lock by what means the water level sank itself around 3-4 M. In this time, the separation of the zone of the Balaton took place. 1886 durchstach one the Diäs-islands and led the river Zala through. To a further Austrocknung, the 1926 beendigte regulation of the river-lower course, that led led greeted flowed now-through dams-suddenly in that-Plattensee. Middle of century began started the Meliorierung of the lower Zala-valley, and in that 1970 -ger years there agricultural production trial.
As a versprüngliches sump zone only the
Kis-Balaton-basin receipt yet also here it gave remained noticeable intervention
into the nature system. The ehema lige Balaton-bay received now its water supply
only yet through the Gru waters, the precipitations and the Flutungen. A more
drying up, sumpfarti living space developed itself with strong vegetation and
little, open what-serflächen.
The specialists in high nutrient loads of the Zala saw
the decay of the water quality of the Balatonsees (first visible sign 1966 the
blue alga blossom in the bay of Keszthely) established. Almost the half of the
nachfliessen the water quantities arrives through this river in the Plattensee.
In order to sink this Immisi-sonswert, one sketched the Kis-Balaton protection
system that should be realized in z phases. The first Bauabschnitt "Hidveger
lake" wu 1985 concludes. The original philosophy planned a water cleaning with a
Fl of higher order (Makrofitons). It became wrestled based on the practical Erf
and removed investigations through a model, that relies on cleaning effect of
algae. The Schutztsystem is located presently the 2nd phase of the formation
of the Feneker-lake. Hir will strike another way a, that has a harmonization of the demands of the water protection and 2nd part interests of opposing the nature protection as a goal. THE
STORY OF THE nature protection
The nature values of the sump world - primarily the spectacular Reiherkolo- - never woke already the interest of the Ornitologen in the past century. 1886 Gäbor Szikla tested would publish rakes a specialty scientific Be-over the settlements. Under direction of Ottö Hermann and Sändor Lovassy busied itself that 2. International Ornitologie-congress (Budapest 1891) with this water bird - Eldorado. Of 1906 at Jakab tavern led would laugh bird known-researches at the Kis-Balaton through. As a summary, its work appeared got into over "that to 1918 and present Nistplätze of the Reiher in Un-garn". Under the influence of this essay, over the downfall of the Klonien, organi-sierten Dutch Vogelschützer a public collection to the rescue of the Brutgebiets.
A Hungarian movement under leadership of Kälmän Warga connected itself. One likes to read the public meaning of this subject that the row heimatlicher donor was opened by the governor Miklös Horthy. 1922 a paid nature protection guard - the first in Hungary - was engaged as a "Reiherwächter" by the collected sum. Jözsef Gulyäs fisherman-master out of Vörs became entrusts with the task.
One constructed 1930 the first bird-observation storm.
1940 were determined the boundary of the planned bird reservation through Kalman
Varga and Miksa Földväry, president of the country-nature protection office. At
the contradiction of the largest country owners of the abbey Zalavar and the
gentleman custody Festetich sheiterte the intention. It came to no legal
regulation. After the war and the subsequent nationalization, the bird customer
institute received the national order to inspect the Kis-Balaton-zone. An area
was placed 1951 by 2437 kh (ca.: 1400 ha) officially under Shutz. The
vogelkundliche research rested in this time. Film, Fotografie and literature
with Wesken of Istvän Homoki Nagy, Zoltän Tildy and Istvän Fekete supposed
themselves the subject. Ers with the work of Dr. Andräs Keve (1975-76) over the
bird world at the Kis-Balaton began again the scientific research.
Beginning of that 80-ger years the work on the
Kis-Balaton-Schutzsys-tem began. Out of that once drained, then agriculturally
used emerged zone the current Hidveger lake. The increasing meaning of the
nature protection and the enlargement of the damp zone let the protected area of
the zone grow on 14745 ha. The international rank of this "Wetlands" became
include in documented the Wildwässer-cunning of the Ramsarer pact by that. The
highest nature protection-classification followed 1997: the zone becomes part of
the Balaton-Höchlandischer national park. Therewith following goals receive
priority highest: plant protection the and tierkundlichen values, the biological
variety and the undisturbed activity of the nature system. Based on its high
Bio-Diversität and its type and Individuenreichtums, the damp zone Kis-Balaton
earns this Shutz. In addition it forms an important ecological building block in
the network of the Hungarian (and European) nature-living spaces. THE nature
Forests in that hard and soft wood meadow the meadows (Salicatea
purpurea), the Eschen (Cariceto remotae Fraxinetum), the Eschen form and Erlen (Faxineto
panonicae-Alnetum), as well as the oak-Eschen and elm (Querco-Ulmetum)
charakteris-tables forest companies. Older tree supply is found only yet
isolated. The Schwarzerle (Alnus glutinosa) is the typical tree of this room,
named in the local linguistic usage also "Hainbaum". The protection strips of
the lakes are existed with Pappeln (Populus) and meadows (Salix).
Of the herb plants the large two sheet (Listera ovata), the Schwertblättrige Waldvöglein (Cephalenthera longifolia), the shaft lots Primel (Primula vulgaris), the Frühligs-knot flower (Leucojum vernum), the Nestwurz (Neottia nidus-avis) and the Schmerwurz (Tamus communis) occur. In crowns of the old trees, the Seeadler (Haliaeetus albicilla) constructs its gigantic Horste. The settlement of this ver-strengthens protected would grasp becomes by art-nest and winter feeding promoted. On the islands ünd in tree caves of the Valdränder, Fledermäuse delay itself. Most frequently one finds the Rauhhautfledermaus (Pipistrellus nathusü) and the Zwergfledermaus (Pipistrellus pipistrellus).
Showed and meadows
Of special ecological value, the sump meadows, the drying up bog meadows are and dry lawn-islands, but also the mow meadows and edge-biotope. A meaningful possibility to protect this Offendlandflächen against Verbuschung, is the extensive Beweidung. The nature protection reflects optimally adapted are itself at the same time on old Hausturassen as well as the Hungarian grey cows (Bos taurus primigenies podolicus), and the auspruchslosen water buffalo (Bos bubalus domesticus), that this under-schiedlichen living spaces.
One of the rare meadows-the spider-Ragwurz (Ophn&127s sphecodes is plant). Numerous protected Kna-benkrautgewächse occur here: the little lad herb (Orchis morio), the meat red lad herb (Dactylorhiza incarnata), the sump lad herb (Orchis laxiflora susp. palustris), the bug-lad herb (Orchis coriophora) and the helmet-lad herb (Orchis militaris) only some Beispile are. Beside it one finds the Hundswurtz (Anacamptis pyra-midalis), the autumn-screw pennants (Spiranthes spiralis) on meadows and at forest edges, and the real Sumpfwurz (Epipactis palustris).
On the dry lawn, the little
grape-hyazinthe (Muscari botryoides) blooms and at some places the colorful
sword lily (iris variegata). In the winter, that seek otherwise moisture love
Kammolche (Tritu-raged cristatus) and Teichmolche (Triturus vulgaris) the lawns
up. Of the Amphi-bien, the garlic toad (Pelobates fuscus), the Erdkröte (Bufo
bufo) and the change toad (Bufo viridis) occur. Rare Brutevogel of this zone is
the meadows consecration (Circus pygargus) and the Wiesenralle (Crex crex). In
the damp meadows nistet of the Rotschenkel (Tringa totanus) and on the drier
free areas, one hears regularly the Wachtelruf (Coturnix coturnix). The
Wiedehopf (Upupa epops) is here also anzutreffen. It inhabits the hollow meadows
at the edge of the meadows. Under the rodents, two types are worth mentioning:
the nordic Wühlmaus (Microtus oeconomus) and the Erdmaus (Microtus agrestis).
Both are Relikte out of the last Eiszeit.
Water living spaces
In the change, the special value of the zone lies. Am- and in the water life partnerships formed themselves, that are to be found in Hungary only very rarely. So on the 5400 ha-area of the Feneker lake, alone 150 cönotaxonisch can be proved describable plant type. Special Bedentung approaches the sump vegetation (Phragmitetea) unique in central Europe. With about 2200 ha take in at the same time the raw respect (Scripo-Phragmitetum). The large blessings (Magnocarition) with 1500 ha and the spawn herb vegetation of the numerous canals follow. Also the Hidveger lake shows with ca. 50 types a yet remarkable variety up. To the large part here the water-sump-vegetation came as a result of the Überflutung to a stop. In this area of the Kis-Balaton dominieren the open water areas.
Large blessing vegetation
The representative of the plants-companies
bound at the water is the large blessings. Almost all transitions between the
Bultenseggen and that greeted are demonstrable. The Bultensegen (Carex elata)
and the banks blessing (Carex riparia) are the head plant. Both types form
expanded Vorkom-men. Frequently the yellow blossoms of the water sword lily (iris
pseudacorus) illuminate out of the sheets sea. Farbtupfer set also the blue
breaking open meadows-flat peas (Lathyrus palustris) and the large rooster foot
(Ranunculus lingua). Beside it one finds the Kalmus (Acorus calamus) and the
sump fern (Thelypteris palustris) inhabiting once Schwimm-bog in the flat water
zones. The deeper parts between the Bulten is therefore worth mentioning because
here grossegen- and Laickkrautvegetation mix themselves together. That greeted
is-zone the preferred living space of bog frog (Rana arvalis) and red-bauchunke
(Bombina bombina). Of the sing bird types, one encounters frequently on the reed
tube singer (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus), the Rohrschwirl (Locustella
luscinioides) and the Rohrammer (Emberiza schoeniclus). Here also the Brutplätze
of the especially protected bog duck (Aythya niroca) are located.
The Kis-Balaton is one of the largest Röhrricht-zones of central Europe. Its be-sonderer of ecological Vert lies establishes structure in the mosaic type. Long time undisturbed geriet the inaccessible reed sea first in the past century through its "Reiherdörfer" into the view point of the interested profession. Also today here that would yet roast reinforces protected Seidenreiher (Egretta garzetta), the Löffler (Platalea leucorodia), the Rallenreiher (Ardeola ralloides), the fish row (Ardea cinerea), the Purpurreiher (Ardea purpurea), the Nachtreiher (Nyctico-rax nycticorax), the Zwergrohrdommel (Ixobrynchus minutus) and the Rohrdom-mel (Botaurus stellaris). In the little open water areas in masses ducks birds are to be observed, all ducks type Ungars here suitable Brut-places find. The bog duck (Aythya nyroca) and the grey goose (Anser anser) form important Nistbestände. Out of the concert of the sing birds, the voices of thrush tube singer (Acrocephalus arundinaceus), Rohrschwirl (Locustella luscinioides), pond tube singer (Acrocephalus scirpaceus), Tamariskensänger (solved-ciniole melanopogon) leave themselves, and Bartmeise (Panurus biarmicus) heraushören.
Canals and bank
The slowly fluent, at some places verschlammte water of the canals and ditches creates ideal prerequisites for the expansion of the Laichkrautveg se tation. Probably first the white stars of the Seero (Nymphaea albums) will be noticeable the spectator. The ditches along the poisonous water ski sump-Brennessel (Urtica kioviensis) comes, and Kalmus (Aco raged ling (Cicuta virosa). calamus) are also noticeable Bewohnei of the Uferbreiche. The kleinstblütigs en plant of the world, the dwarf water lens (Wolffia arrhiza) lives here between the water lenses covers (Lemnaceae). In the narrow sump canals, the Hun is at home, that earlier than a lining for pigs and ducks fish (Umbra krameri) was caught.
The changing life conditions of this living space h the Schlammpeizger (Misgurnus fossilis) on unique Veise adapted itself: Se of many veins durchwobener Nachdarm makes the reception of atmosphä gene-schen oxygen possible. Earlier this Fischart counted fast arrange to the heads--and was the Schlammpeizger-fishery a blöhendes Geshäft. Of d la-reptiles come regularly the European sump turtle (Emys orbicuor. raged), the Ringelnatter (Natrix natrix), and the Würfelnatter (Natrix tesselata) in the bank meadows constructs the Beutelmeise (Remiz pendulinus) its free cliffs nest.
While the Feneker lake is covered predominantly by vegetation, dominier at the Hidveger lake the open water areas and the spawn herb-Pflanzengesell shafts. The Überflutungen following, conquered the Wasserknöterich (Polygon amphibium) large zones. This existence has itself however now zurückgebild. Remarkably two spawn herb types, that water nut (Trapa natans) taste de mei-fruit after chestnut, are gathered became and therefore, and the gene water tube (Utricularia vulgaris), that to the insects catchers belonged. the cancer scissors (Stratoides alloides) thrives to nutrient empire water.
-You covers in places large water areas and certain the Lebensbe gungen of a Libellenart, whose increase is tied to this plant, rten green Mosaikjungfer (Aeschna viridis). The Larven of more than 30 Mückena develop itself in the irrigating and offer a certain nourishment base for many species, under that also the water frog (Rana esculenta). Of the about 30 proved fish types, the important existence of the carp (Gyrunus carpio morpha hungaricus), a real peculiarity represents. Fishes form optimally adapted has itself the head nourishment of the very rare otter (Lutra lutra), that this life-room. Large fish gluttons are also the Kormorane (Pha-lacrocorax carbo).
Your Nistkolonien with ingesamt more than 900 Brutpaaren are already from a distance at the meadows standing, died out in the water recognizably. One estimates stacked the daily fish consumption this hunter to be 1,5 tons. Also the Weissbartseeschwalben (Chlidonias hybrida) form settlements. You be-stand out of many, on the water of swimming nest. Flat, vegetation-free islands the river-Seeschwalben (Sterna hirundo) to the Brüten need. Often they settle together with laugh gull (Larus ridibundus), rarer with its Ver-vandten, the black head gull (Larus melanocephalus).
The national park and the foundation "Ertekeinkert"
organize regularly actions for the maintenance of this Nistsiedlungen. The
drittgössten of its type in Hungary are entire. It is the goal of the work of
received islands long-termed as a Brutplatz. Growing up herbs and bush
vegetation were removed and protects the bank embankment with meadows mesh and
Basaltsteinen against waves blow gene-. During the autumn train on the open
water and in the winter on the frozen up lake leave up to 50,000 wild geese
observe itself. During the day tummeln a large number of lining that which is
sought ducks, under them also rare Gäste agrees, on the water areas.
The largest part of the Kis-Balaton is blocked for reasons the nature protection. The Ausflugszenter openly stand all visitors on the island Känyavär, in Vörs and Käpolnapuszta. There are hinge possibilities at the mouth stretch of the Zala, (from the railroad bridge to the Balaton), on the island Känyavär, at the eastern bank of the united canals (Fenekpuszta), at the two pages of the connection way between Zalavär and Zalaszabar and at the Bäränder water (Zalaseite). In all other zones of the Kis-Balaton is that hinges forbidden!
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